Simulations of gravitational stress on normovolemic and hypovolemic men and women

Qingguang Zhang, Charles F. Knapp, Michael B. Stenger, Abhijit R. Patwardhan, Samy C. Elayi, Siqi Wang, Vladimir I. Kostas, Joyce M. Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Earth-based simulations of physiologic responses to space mission activities are needed to develop prospective countermeasures. To determine whether upright lower body positive pressure (LBPP) provides a suitable space mission simulation, we investigated the cardiovascular responses of normovolemic and hypovolemic men and women to supine and orthostatic stress induced by head-up tilt (HUT) and upright LBPP, representing standing in lunar, Martian, and Earth gravities. Methods: Six men and six women were tested in normovolemic and hypovolemic (furosemide, intravenous, 0.5 mg z kg 2 1 ) conditions. Continuous electrocardiogram, blood pressure, segmental bioimpedance, and stroke volume (echocardiography) were recorded supine and at lunar, Martian, and Earth gravities (10°, 20°, and 80° HUT vs. 20%, 40%, and 100% bodyweight upright LBPP), respectively. Cardiovascular responses were assessed from mean values, spectral powers, and spontaneous barorefl ex parameters. Results: Hypovolemia reduced plasma volume by ; 10% and stroke volume by ; 25% at supine, and increasing orthostatic stress resulted in further reductions. Upright LBPP induced more plasma volume losses at simulated lunar and Martian gravities compared with HUT, while both techniques induced comparable central hypovolemia at each stress. Cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress were comparable between HUT and upright LBPP in both normovolemic and hypovolemic conditions; however, hypovolemic blood pressure was greater during standing at 100% bodyweight compared to 80° HUT due to a greater increase of total peripheral resistance. Conclusions: The comparable cardiovascular response to HUT and upright LBPP support the use of upright LBPP as a potential model to simulate activity in lunar and Martian gravities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)407-413
Number of pages7
JournalAviation Space and Environmental Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2014


  • Baroreflex
  • Blood pressure regulation
  • Hypovolemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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