Simultaneous measurements of tissue blood flow and oxygenation using a wearable fiber-free optical sensor

Xuhui Liu, Yutong Gu, Chong Huang, Mingjun Zhao, Yanda Cheng, Elie G.Abu Jawdeh, Henrietta S. Bada, Lei Chen, Guoqiang Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Significance: There is an essential need to develop wearable multimodality technologies that can continuously measure both blood flow and oxygenation in deep tissues to investigate and manage various vascular/cellular diseases. Aim: To develop a wearable dual-wavelength diffuse speckle contrast flow oximetry (DSCFO) for simultaneous measurements of blood flow and oxygenation variations in deep tissues. Approach: A wearable fiber-free DSCFO probe was fabricated using 3D printing to confine two small near-infrared laser diodes and a tiny CMOS camera in positions for DSCFO measurements. The spatial diffuse speckle contrast and light intensity measurements at the two different wavelengths enable quantification of tissue blood flow and oxygenation, respectively. The DSCFO was first calibrated using tissue phantoms and then tested in adult forearms during artery cuff occlusion. Results: Phantom tests determined the largest effective source-detector distance (15 mm) and optimal camera exposure time (10 ms) and verified the accuracy of DSCFO in measuring absorption coefficient variations. The DSCFO detected substantial changes in forearm blood flow and oxygenation resulting from the artery occlusion, which meet physiological expectations and are consistent with previous study results. Conclusions: The wearable DSCFO may be used for continuous and simultaneous monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation variations in freely behaving subjects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012705
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 31 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.


  • blood flow
  • blood oxygenation
  • deep tissue
  • speckle contrast
  • wearable

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials


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