Social Determinants of Discrimination and Access to Health Care among Transgender Women in Oregon

Jonathan Garcia, Richard A. Crosby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Purpose: Transgender women in the United States experience health disparities and limited access to gender-affirming health services. This study describes the social determinants of health that shape access to health services for transgender women in Oregon, a state with a high tally of gender-affirming policies. Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with 25 transgender women between 18 and 39 years of age. Interviews explored the social, economic, cultural, and legal factors that shape access to health. A Qualtrics survey captured sociodemographic characteristics. We identified facilitators and barriers to accessing gender-affirming services using thematic analysis of qualitative data. Results: Our participants perceived gender-affirming health services in Oregon to be relatively trans-friendly, compared to other parts of the United States. This perception drew several transgender women in our sample to migrate to Oregon from other "more conservative"states. Facilitators included ease with legal name change (60% had completed), inclusiveness of hormone therapy in the Oregon Health Plan, and availability of informed consent hormone therapy. However, for our participants, economic and social discrimination were major limiting factors to accessing and navigating health services. Social factors exacerbated difficulties navigating and understanding health systems to achieve coverage; 20% had insurance that did not cover hormone therapy. Specialized surgeons were located in urban/suburban centers; electrolysis coverage was limited; and 10% had gender-affirming surgery. Conclusion: This study indicates that services are necessary to assist with navigating access to gender-affirming health care, even in affirming policy contexts like Oregon.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-233
Number of pages9
JournalTransgender Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Jonathan Garcia and Richard A. Crosby 2020; Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


  • Oregon
  • discrimination
  • gender-affirming health
  • social determinants
  • transgender women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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