Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors Effect in Association with Driver’s Medical Services after Crashes

Shraddha Sagar, Nikiforos Stamatiadis, Rachel Codden, Marco Benedetti, Larry Cook, Motao Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Motor vehicle crashes are the third leading cause of preventable-injury deaths in the United States. Previous research has found links between the socioeconomic characteristics of driver residence zip codes and crash frequencies. The objective of the study is to extend earlier work by investigating whether the socioeconomic characteristics of a driver’s residence zip code influence their likelihood of resulting in post-crash medical services. Data were drawn from General Use Model (GUM) data for police crash reports linked to hospital records in Kentucky, Utah, and Ohio. Zip-code-level socioeconomic data from the American Community Survey were also incorporated into analyses. Logistic regression models were developed for each state and showed that the socioeconomic variables such as educational attainment, median housing value, gender, and age have p-values < 0.001 when tested against the odds of seeking post-crash medical services. Models for Kentucky and Utah also include the employment-to-population ratio. The results show that in addition to age and gender, educational attainment, median housing value and rurality percentage at the zip code level are associated with the likelihood of a driver seeking follow-up medical services after a crash. It is concluded that drivers from areas with lower household income and lower educational attainment are more likely to seek post-crash medical services, primarily in emergency departments. Female drivers are also more likely to seek post-crash medical services.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9087
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Ann Nwosu for her initial efforts in developing the Ohio GUM and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Grant 1U01CE002855-01).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • general use model
  • highway safety
  • logistic regression
  • socioeconomic factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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