Solvent-Free Manufacturing of Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes via Cold Plasma

Zhiming Liang, Tianyi Li, Holden Chi, Joseph Ziegelbauer, Kai Sun, Ming Wang, Wei Zhang, Tuo Liu, Yang Tse Cheng, Zonghai Chen, Xiaohong Gayden, Chunmei Ban

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Abstract. Slurry casting has been used to fabricate Lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes for decades, which involves toxic and expensive organic solvents followed by high-cost vacuum drying and electrode calendaring. This work presents a new manufacturing method using a nonthermal plasma to create inter-particle binding without using any polymeric binding materials, enabling solvent-free manufacturing electrodes with any electrochemistry of choice. The cold-plasma-coating (CPC) technique enables fabricating electrodes with thickness (>200μm), high mass loading (>30 mg cm-2), high peel strength and the ability to print LIBs in an arbitrary geometry. This crosscutting, chemistry agnostic, platform technology would increase energy density, eliminate the use of any solvents, vacuum drying and calendaring processes during production, and reduce manufacturing cost for current and future cell designs. Here, lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) were used as examples to demonstrate the efficacy of the CPC technique. It is found that the mechanical peel strength of CPC-manufactured LFP is over an order of magnitude higher than that of slurry-casted LFP electrodes. Full cells assembled with a graphite anode and the CPC-LFP cathodes offer highly reversible cycling performance with a capacity retention of 81.6% over 500 cycles. For highly conductive cathode materials LCO, an areal capacity of 4.2 mAh cm-2 at 0.2C is attained. We anticipate that this new, highly scalable manufacturing technique will re-define global LIB manufacturing providing significantly reduced plant footprints and material costs.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy and Environmental Materials
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

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  • cold plasma deposition
  • lithium-ion battery
  • solvent-free manufacturing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science (all)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Energy (miscellaneous)


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