Soybean somatic embryogenesis: Effects of hormones and culture manipulations

Paul A. Lazzeri, David F. Hildebrand, Glenn B. Collins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


Somatic embryos were induced in cultures of immature soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) embryos, or isolated cotyledons on MS modified medium supplemented with NAA and 2,4-D, BAP and ABA. When NAA and 2,4-D were compared at similar concentrations (25 and 23 μM), 2,4-D produced larger number of somatic embryos, however, embryogenesis efficiency was improved in media containing NAA by using higher levels (100-150 μM) of the auxin. Somatic embryo morphology varied with auxin type: NAA-induced embryos more closely resembled zygotic embryos than did 2,4-D-induced embryos. Additions of BAP or ABA to auxin-containing media had either no effect or reduced embryo production, although ABA altered the morphology of 2,4-D-induced embryos. In media containing both NAA and 2,4-D, the latter was dominant in terms of embryo morphology. The effects of subculture frequency and of transfers between 2,4-D and NAA media were investigated: Subculture frequency influenced mainly the frequency of normal embryos, while preculture on 2,4-D increased subsequent embryogenesis efficiency on NAA medium but reduced the frequency of normal embryos.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-208
Number of pages12
JournalPlant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1987


  • embryo morphology
  • hormones
  • plant regeneration
  • somatic embryogenesis
  • soybean
  • tissue culture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Horticulture


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