Space-aerial-ground-sea integrated networks: Resource optimization and challenges in 6G

Sana Sharif, Sherali Zeadally, Waleed Ejaz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Space–air–ground–sea integrated (SAGSI) networks are envisioned to connect satellite, aerial, ground, and sea networks to provide connectivity everywhere and all the time in sixth-generation (6G) networks. However, the success of SAGSI networks is constrained by several challenges including resource optimization when the users have diverse requirements and applications. We present a comprehensive review of SAGSI networks from a resource optimization perspective. We discuss use case scenarios and possible applications of SAGSI networks. The resource optimization discussion considers the challenges associated with SAGSI networks. In our review, we categorized resource optimization techniques based on throughput and capacity maximization, delay minimization, energy consumption, task offloading, task scheduling, resource allocation or utilization, network operation cost, outage probability and the average age-of-information, joint optimization (data rate difference, storage or caching, CPU cycle frequency), the overall performance of network and performance degradation, software-defined networking, and intelligent surveillance and relay communication. Finally, we discuss challenges and future research directions in SAGSI networks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103647
JournalJournal of Network and Computer Applications
StatePublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • 6G
  • Aerial networks
  • Integrated networks
  • Maritime networks
  • Resource optimization
  • SAGSI networks
  • Terrestrial networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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