Specificity of Reading Self-Efficacy Among Primary School Children

Pilvi I. Peura, Helena J.K. Viholainen, Tuija I. Aro, Eija M. Räikkönen, Ellen L. Usher, Riikka M.A. Sorvo, Robert M. Klassen, Mikko T. Aro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


We investigated the specificity of reading self-efficacy among second- to fifth-grade children in Finland (N = 1,327). Bandura (1997) theorized that efficacy beliefs can be assessed at different levels of specificity; however, empirical support for this view is scarce among young children. Efficacy beliefs targeting reading-related activities were assessed at three specificity levels (general, intermediate, and specific). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that these specificity levels are separable, but correlated, and the structure was invariant across gender and grade level. Self-efficacy factors were positively associated with reading fluency, but the strength of these associations varied according to specificity level. Findings suggest that reading self-efficacy in primary grades can and should be assessed at different specificity levels according to research aims.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)496-516
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Experimental Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 3 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Self-efficacy
  • beliefs
  • elementary schools
  • reading
  • reading fluency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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