Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a crucial chemotactic factor in peripheral blood (PB) involved in the mobilization process and egress of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow (BM). Since S1P is present at high levels in erythrocytes, one might assume that, by increasing the plasma S1P level, the hemolysis of red blood cells would induce mobilization of HSPCs. To test this assumption, we induced hemolysis in mice by employing phenylhydrazine (PHZ). We observed that doubling the S1P level in PB from damaged erythrocytes induced only a marginally increased level of mobilization. However, if mice were exposed to PHZ together with the CXCR4 blocking agent, AMD3100, a robust synergistic increase in the number of mobilized HSPCs occurred. We conclude that hemolysis, even if it significantly elevates the S1P level in PB, also requires attenuation of the CXCR4-SDF-1 axis-mediated retention in BM niches for HSPC mobilization to occur. Our data also further confirm that S1P is a major chemottractant present in plasma and chemoattracts HSPCs into PB under steady-state conditions. However, to egress from BM, HSPCs first have to be released from BM niches by blocking the SDF-1-CXCR4 retention signal.
|Journal||BioMed Research International|
|State||Published - 2013|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (all)
- Immunology and Microbiology (all)