Background Context: Pre-existing comorbid psychiatric mood disorders are a known risk factor for impaired health-related quality of life and poor long-term outcomes after spine surgery. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of preexisting mood disorders on (1) pre- and postoperative patient-reported outcomes, (2) complications, and (3) pre- and postoperative opioid consumption in patients undergoing elective cervical or lumbar spine surgery. Study Design/Setting: Retrospective review at a single academic institution from 2014 to 2017. Patient Sample: Consecutive adult patients who underwent cervical or lumbar surgery. Outcome Measures: Quantitative measurements of pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and spinal region-specific disability scores (Neck Disability Index [NDI] and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]). Methods: This is a retrospective review of 435 consecutive patients (179 cervical, 256 lumbar) who underwent elective spine surgery at a single academic institution from 2014 to 2017. Patient preoperative diagnosis of psychiatric mood disorder (eg, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, or dementia), baseline characteristics, medical (nonpsychiatric) comorbidities, operative variables, and surgical complications (eg, superficial and deep infection, wound complication, emergency department [ED] visits, readmissions, and repeat operations) were recorded. Additionally, preoperative ED visits, pre- and postoperative opioid requirements, total opioid prescription quantities and most recent dateof opioid prescription were collected. VAS, NDI, and ODI scores were recorded preoperatively and at 2, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery. Continuous variables were compared between those with and without diagnosed psychiatric comorbidity using two-tailed independent t test, and categorical variables were compared using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Analyses of variance and analysis of covariance were used to compare patient-reported outcomes between groups. A multivariate approach was taken to account for contribution of potential covariates in significant findings. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine variables associated with the number of postoperative opioid prescriptions. Results: Of the cervical and lumbar cohorts, 78 (43.6%) and 113 (44.1%), respectively, had a preoperative diagnosis of comorbid psychiatric mood disorder. Cervical patients with mood disorders received a significantly higher total number of opioid prescriptions post-operatively (4.6±5.2 vs. 2.8±3.9; p=.002). Patients with mood disorders had worse NDI scores at all time points (p=.04), however there were no differences in VAS pain scores (p=.5). There were no statistical differences between patients with and without mood disorders regarding baseline characteristics, medical (nonpsychiatric) comorbidities, operative variables, surgical complications, preoperative ED visits or prior opioid use (p>.05). For lumbar patients, patients with mood disorders were more commonly females (p=.04), tobacco users (p=.003), alcohol dependent (p=.01) and illicit-drug abusers (p=.03). There were no differences regarding surgical complications or opioid consumption. Tobacco use (p<.001) was the sole contributor to postoperative VAS pain scores. Patients with mood disorders had significantly higher VAS values both before and 3 months following surgery (p=.01), but there was no difference in ODI scores. Conclusions: Patients with preoperative psychiatric mood disorders undergoing elective cervical surgery had worse NDI scores and received more opioid prescriptions, despite similar VAS scores as those without mood disorders. Lumbar surgery patients with mood disorders were demographically different than those without mood disorders and had worse pain before and after surgery, though ODI scores were not different. Tobacco use was the sole contributor to postoperative VAS pain scores. This information can be useful in counseling patients with mood disorders before elective spinal surgery.
|Number of pages||6|
|State||Published - Oct 2020|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.
- Elective cervical spine surgery
- Elective lumbar spine surgery
- Psychiatric comorbidity
- Psychiatric disorder
- Surgical outcome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Clinical Neurology