Spread spectrum signaling for speech watermarking

Qiang Cheng, Jefrey Sorensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


The technique of embedding a digital signal into an audio recording or image using techniques that render the signal imperceptible has received significant attention. Embedding an imperceptible, cryptographically secure signal, or watermark, is seen as a potential mechanism that may be used to prove ownership or detect tampering. While there has been a considerable amount of attention devoted to the techniques of spread-spectrum signaling for use in image and audio watermarking applications, there has only been a limited study for embedding data signals in speech. Speech is an uncharacteristically narrow band signal given the perceptual capabilities of the human hearing system. However, using speech analysis techniques, one may design an effective data signal that can be used to hide an arbitrary message in a speech signal. Also included are experiments demonstrating the subliminal channel capacity of the speech data embedding technique developed here.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1337-1340
Number of pages4
JournalICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings
StatePublished - 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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