Standardised Tool for the Assessment of Bruxism

Daniele Manfredini, Jari Ahlberg, Ghizlane Aarab, Steven Bender, Alessandro Bracci, Peter A. Cistulli, Paulo Cesar Conti, Reny De Leeuw, Justin Durham, Alona Emodi-Perlman, Dominik Ettlin, Luigi M. Gallo, Birgitta Häggman-Henrikson, Christer Hublin, Takafumi Kato, Gary Klasser, Michail Koutris, Gilles J. Lavigne, Daniel Paesani, Ingrid PerozPeter Svensson, Peter Wetselaar, Frank Lobbezoo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present and describe the Standardised Tool for the Assessment of Bruxism (STAB), an instrument that was developed to provide a multidimensional evaluation of bruxism status, comorbid conditions, aetiology and consequences. METHODS: The rationale for creating the tool and the road map that led to the selection of items included in the STAB has been discussed in previous publications. RESULTS: The tool consists of two axes, specifically dedicated to the evaluation of bruxism status and consequences (Axis A) and of bruxism risk and etiological factors and comorbid conditions (Axis B). The tool includes 14 domains, accounting for a total of 66 items. Axis A includes the self-reported information on bruxism status and possible consequences (subject-based report) together with the clinical (examiner report) and instrumental (technology report) assessment. The Subject-Based Assessment (SBA) includes domains on Sleep Bruxism (A1), Awake Bruxism (A2) and Patient's Complaints (A3), with information based on patients' self-report. The Clinically Based Assessment (CBA) includes domains on Joints and Muscles (A4), Intra- and Extra-Oral Tissues (A5) and Teeth and Restorations (A6), based on information collected by an examiner. The Instrumentally Based Assessment (IBA) includes domains on Sleep Bruxism (A7), Awake Bruxism (A8) and the use of Additional Instruments (A9), based on the information gathered with the use of technological devices. Axis B includes the self-reported information (subject-based report) on factors and conditions that may have an etiological or comorbid association with bruxism. It includes domains on Psychosocial Assessment (B1), Concurrent Sleep-related Conditions Assessment (B2), Concurrent Non-Sleep Conditions Assessment (B3), Prescribed Medications and Use of Substances Assessment (B4) and Additional Factors Assessment (B5). As a rule, whenever possible, existing instruments, either in full or partial form (i.e. specific subscales), are included. A user's guide for scoring the different items is also provided to ease administration. CONCLUSIONS: The instrument is now ready for on-field testing and further refinement. It can be anticipated that it will help in collecting data on bruxism in such a comprehensive way to have an impact on several clinical and research fields.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-58
Number of pages30
JournalJournal of Oral Rehabilitation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • assessment
  • awake bruxism
  • bruxism
  • diagnosis
  • sleep bruxism
  • STAB

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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