Standardization of the experimental model of Haemophilus ducreyi infection in human subjects

Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq, Alice C. Thornton, Barry P. Katz, Kate R. Fortney, Kristin D. Todd, Antoinette F. Hood, Stanley M. Spinola

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107 Scopus citations


Human volunteers were challenged with Haemophilus ducreyi. Twenty subjects were inoculated with 2 doses (~30 cfu) of live and I dose of heat- killed bacteria at 3 sites on the arm. Eight subjectS were assigned to biopsy 1 or 4 days after inoculation, and 12 were biopsied after they developed a painful pustular lesion or were followed until disease resolved. Papules developed at 95% of 40 sites infected with live bacteria (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.1%-99.4%). In 24 sites followed to end point, 27% of the papules resolved, 69% (95% CI, 47.1%-86.6%) evolved into pustules, and 4% remained at the papular stage. Recovery rates of H. ducreyi from surface cultures ranged from 13% to 41%. H. ducreyi was recovered from biopsies of 12 of 15 pustules and 1 of 7 papules, suggesting that H. ducreyi replicates between the papular and pustular stages of disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1684-1687
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1998

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Received 17 December 1997; revised 10 April 1998. Presented in part: annual meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, San Francisco, 13–16 September 1997 (abstract 667). Informed consent was obtained from the subjects for participation and for HIV serology in accordance with human experimentation guidelines of the US Department of Health and Human Services and of the Institutional Review Board of Indiana University–Purdue University at Indianapolis. Grant support: NIH (AI-27863, AI-31494, and RR-00750). Reprints or correspondence: Dr. Stanley M. Spinola, Dept. of Medicine, Emerson Hall Room 435, 545 Barnhill Dr., Indianapolis, IN 46202 (

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases


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