Stationary shoulder supporting and tilting pin penetrating friction stir welding

Huijie Liu, Yanying Hu, Huan Wang, Shuaishuai Du, Dusan P. Sekulic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The aim of this paper is to offer an insight into a friction stir welding technique. The paper data indicate that the sheets to be welded can be completely penetrated by a tilting pin, while the kissing bond in the root of the weld would be entirely avoided. An equipment setup, consisting of a slide way, a pedestal, a stationary shoulder and a mounting platform, including two separate parts, has been developed. During the welding process, the tilting tool and the stationary shoulder moved synchronously in the welding direction. The 2219-T6 aluminum alloy sheets with the thickness of 5 mm were successfully friction stir welded by a tilting tool with a pin length of 6 mm. The microstructure and mechanical properties of joints were revealed. The kissing bond could be completely eliminated by stationary shoulder supporting and tilting pin penetrating friction stir welding (STFSW) and no other defects were induced. The stationary shoulder affected zone (SSAZ) consisting of fine equiaxed grains was a typical zone of a STFSW joint. A heuristic model was established to describe the material flow mechanism during the welding process. The tensile strength and associated elongation of the joint were 343 ± 3 MPa and 8.2% ± 0.2%, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)596-604
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Materials Processing Technology
StatePublished - May 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.


  • Friction stir welding
  • Kissing bond
  • Mechanical properties
  • Microstructure
  • Tilting penetration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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