Subjective effects and the main reason for smoking in outpatients with schizophrenia: a case-control study

Manuel Gurpegui, José M. Martínez-Ortega, Dolores Jurado, M. Carmen Aguilar, Francisco J. Diaz, Jose de Leon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


This study examines in daily smokers (1) subjective effects and main reason for smoking after controlling for nicotine dependence level in 100 controls and 173 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, schizophrenia and (2) the association of specific subjective effects and schizophrenia symptoms. The subjective effects and the main reason for smoking were studied using a questionnaire and the schizophrenia symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Proportions were compared by odds ratios controlling for the effects of sex, age, education, and level of nicotine dependence by logistic regression. Schizophrenia was strongly associated with subjective effects of cheerfulness, agility, alertness, concentration, and calmness. In patients with schizophrenia, a cheerfulness effect was associated with higher depressive symptoms; a calming effect, with higher anxiety symptoms; and a sociability effect, with lower negative symptoms. Compared with controls, desire for calmness as the main reason for smoking was more frequent in patients with schizophrenia. These survey data call for confirmation through experimental studies and may help in the design of more focused smoking cessation programs for these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)186-191
Number of pages6
JournalComprehensive Psychiatry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors are grateful to the patients, families, and staff of the Granada-South and Granada-North Community Mental Health Centers and their Rehabilitation Unit, and the Postigo-Velutti Primary Health Care Center, Granada. Doctor Aguilar was supported by a grant from the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (AECI), and Dr Martínez-Ortega was supported by grant AP2003-5031 of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Doctor Diaz was partially supported by grant 030802738 from the Dirección de Investigaciones de la Universidad Nacional, Medellín. Jean Sanders, MA, and Lorraine Maw, MA, helped with editing.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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