Subjective responses predict d-amphetamine choice in healthy volunteers

Conor H. Murray, Jingfei Li, Jessica Weafer, Harriet de Wit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: It is commonly believed that drugs, including stimulants, are used recreationally because of their ability to induce pleasurable subjective effects. However, recreational drug use sometimes occurs in the absence of positive subjective effects, suggesting that other factors contribute. Here, we examine the extent to which the direct subjective effects of amphetamine, a commonly misused stimulant, predict subsequent choice of the drug vs placebo. Methods: Healthy adults (N = 112) participated in a five-session amphetamine choice study. On the first four sessions, participants sampled either 20 mg d-amphetamine or placebo in color-coded capsules two times each. On the fifth session, they chose which color (d-amphetamine or placebo) they preferred. We examined the choice of drug vs placebo in relation to demographic characteristics, baseline mood states, personality and subjective and cardiovascular responses to acute administration of the drug. Results: Eighty-one participants chose amphetamine (Choosers) while 31 chose placebo (Non-choosers). Overall, amphetamine produced typical stimulant-like effects on subjective questionnaires, and it elevated heart rate and blood pressure vs placebo. Choosers reported greater positive mood, elation and stimulant-like effects following amphetamine compared to Non-choosers. The Choosers also exhibited a greater increase in systolic blood pressure, but not heart rate. The groups did not differ on demographic characteristics, mood states before drug administration or personality. Conclusions: These findings support the idea that pleasurable subjective responses to amphetamine, including positive mood, elation, and stimulant-like effects influence behavioral choice of the drug.

Original languageEnglish
Article number173158
JournalPharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
StatePublished - May 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Inc.


  • Amphetamine
  • Choice
  • Drug
  • Healthy volunteer
  • Mood
  • Subjective effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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