Historically, genetically engineered (GE) plants that have incorporated genes conferring insect protection have primarily used Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to achieve their insecticidal phenotype. As a result, regulators have developed a level of familiarity and confidence in reviewing plants incorporating these insecticidal proteins. However, new technologies have been developed that produce GE plants that incorporate pest protection by triggering an RNA interference (RNAi) response or proteins other than Bt Cry proteins. These technologies have new modes of action. Although the overall assessment paradigm for GE plants is robust, there are ongoing discussions about the appropriate tests and measurement endpoints needed to inform non-target arthropod assessment for technologies that have a different mode of action than the Bt Cry proteins. As a result, increasing attention is being paid to the use of sublethal endpoints and their value for environmental risk assessment (ERA). This review focuses on the current status and history of sublethal endpoint use in insect-active GE crops, and evaluates the future use of sublethal endpoints for new and emerging technologies. It builds upon presentations made at the Workshop on Sublethal Endpoints for Non-target Organism Testing for Non-Bt GE Crops (Washington DC, USA, 4–5 March 2019), and the discussions of government, academic and industry scientists convened for the purpose of reviewing the progress and status of sublethal endpoint testing in non-target organisms.
|Journal||Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology|
|State||Published - Jun 9 2020|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding. This work and workshop were funded by a grant from the Agricultural Biotechnology Stewardship Technical Committee (ABSTC) NTO Committee.
© Copyright © 2020 Roberts, Boeckman, Mühl, Romeis, Teem, Valicente, Brown, Edwards, Levine, Melnick, Rodrigues, Vélez, Zhou and Hellmich.
- Bt Cry
- GE plants
- environmental risk assessment
- non-target organisms
- sublethal endpoints
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering