Summary and general conclusions

Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


In general, increased temperatures and well-watered soil promote plant growth and thus flowering and seed production (a component of fitness), but drought stress can override the benefits of increased temperatures on seed production and may cause a decrease in seed quality. However, a short rainless period is an environmental cue for onset of flowering of some trees in tropical wet forests, especially if it is accompanied by a slight decrease in temperature. Heatwaves at the time of pollination can have detrimental effects on pollen viability, thereby causing low seed set, for example, in Zea mays. Notably, in hot and cold deserts and in a Mediterranean climate the timing of adequate soil moisture for seed germination (autumn-winter vs spring), especially for annuals, has significant effects not only on seedling survival but also on plant growth and seed production. Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has the potential to increase the growth and seed production of plants if soil moisture is not limiting. In general, CO2 enrichment increases seed production, but the response is highly species-specific.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPlant Regeneration from Seeds
Subtitle of host publicationA Global Warming Perspective
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9780128237311
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • germination
  • physiological dormancy
  • Seed production
  • seedling survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (all)


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