26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

Robert A. Yokel, Aaron A. Urbas, Robert A. Lodder, John P. Selegue, Rebecca L. Florence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


We synthesized 26Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26Al and 27Al equilibration and incorporate the 26Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-478
Number of pages8
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Apr 2005

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Supported by NIH Grant R01 ES11305. We thank Frank Sikora, James Bartos, David Harover and Danna C. Reid of the Division of Regulatory Services, University of Kentucky and Jason Backus of the Kentucky Geological Survey for conducting the MEA; Dr. Susan Rimmer and John Todd Mcfarland of the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Kentucky and Henry Francis of the Kentucky Geological Survey for conducting the XRD determinations and helping us interpret the results; Bin Dai of the College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, for conducting some of the NIR determinations; and Dr. Chris Brown and Edita Botonjic of the Department of Chemistry, University of Rhode Island, for conducting the Raman spectroscopy determinations of sodium aluminate.


  • Al
  • Aluminum
  • Near infrared spectroscopy
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Sodium aluminum phosphate
  • X-ray diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation


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