Supernatants from oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts modulate Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 promoter activation induced by periodontopathogens in monocytes/macrophages

O. A. González, J. L. Ebersole, C. B. Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bacterial and host cell products during coinfections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1-positive (HIV-1+) patients regulate HIV-1 recrudescence in latently infected cells (e.g. T cells, monocytes/macrophages), impacting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A high frequency of oral opportunistic infections (e.g. periodontitis) in HIV-1+ patients has been demonstrated; however, their potential to impact HIV-1 exacerbation is unclear. We sought to determine the ability of supernatants derived from oral epithelial cells (OKF4) and human gingival fibroblasts (Gin-4) challenged with periodontal pathogens, to modulate the HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes/macrophages. BF24 monocytes/macrophages transfected with the HIV-1 promoter driving the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, or Treponema denticola in the presence of supernatants from OKF4 or Gin4 cells either unstimulated or previously pulsed with bacteria. CAT levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytokine production was evaluated by Luminex beadlyte assays. OKF4 and Gin4 supernatants enhanced HIV-1 promoter activation particularly related to F. nucleatum challenge. An additive effect was observed in HIV-1 promoter activation when monocytes/macrophages were simultaneously stimulated with gingival cell supernatants and bacterial extracts. OKF4 cells produced higher levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukins -6 and -8 in response to F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Preincubation of OKF4 supernatants with anti-GM-CSF reduced the additive effect in periodontopathogen-induced HIV-1 promoter activation. These results suggest that soluble mediators produced by gingival resident cells in response to periodontopathogens could contribute to HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes/macrophages, albeit this effect is most notable following direct stimulation of the cells with oral gram-negative bacteria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-149
Number of pages14
JournalMolecular Oral Microbiology
Volume25
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2010

Keywords

  • Cytokines/chemokines
  • Gingival fibroblasts
  • HIV-1
  • Monocytes/macrophages
  • Oral epithelial cells
  • Periodontal disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Dentistry (all)
  • Microbiology (medical)

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