Sustainability and risk assessment matrix (SRAM): pathway to water security

Enovwo Odjegba, Grace Oluwasanya, Adebayo Sadiq, Gail Brion

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Water security, as a Sustainable Development Goal, ensures that sustainable water supply is consistently available to every individual. A water supply systems (WSS) assessment matrix was designed as a tool for assessing WSS in low-income countries; with selected urban, peri-urban and rural Nigerian communities as case studies. Sustainability of the WSS was assessed through established criteria against five sustainability factors. Sanitary surveys were conducted to evaluate the risks associated with the WSS using sanitary inspection forms, through which the sanitary risk scores (SRS) were derived. For sustainability, the WSS were ranked as Very High, High, Medium and Low Sustainability, and for SRS as Very High, High, Intermediate and Low Risk. A Sustainability and Risk Assessment Matrix (SRAM) was designed using sustainability evaluation and risk assessment for the WSS. The WSS in the rural areas are more ‘Secure’ than those in urban and peri-urban towns, and boreholes are more ‘Secure’ than hand-dug wells, but none of the public water points are scored ‘Secure’. The paper concludes that SRAM provides a cost-effective method of classification and may serve as a pre-water quality and source sustainability assessment tool, especially in low-income countries, as part of the measures to achieve water security.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2928-2940
Number of pages13
JournalWater Science and Technology: Water Supply
Issue number7
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The study was funded by the Federal Government of Nigeria through the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies Intervention Fund. The paper was earlier presented at the International Water Association (IWA) Young Water Professional Conference in April 2018. The authors also acknowledge Caroline Delaire for the release of copies of graphs showing the annual cost to microbial water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, from which Figure 1 was selected. The authors confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 IWA Publishing. All rights reserved.


  • Risk assessment
  • Sanitary survey
  • Sustainability assessment
  • Water security
  • Water supply systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'Sustainability and risk assessment matrix (SRAM): pathway to water security'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this