Switchable X-Ray Orbital Angular Momentum from an Artificial Spin Ice

Justin S. Woods, Xiaoqian M. Chen, Rajesh V. Chopdekar, Barry Farmer, Claudio Mazzoli, Roland Koch, Anton S. Tremsin, Wen Hu, Andreas Scholl, Steve Kevan, Stuart Wilkins, Wai Kwong Kwok, Lance E. De Long, Sujoy Roy, J. Todd Hastings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Artificial spin ices (ASI) have been widely investigated as magnetic metamaterials with exotic properties governed by their geometries. In parallel, interest in x-ray photon orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been rapidly growing. Here we show that a square ASI with a patterned topological defect, a double edge dislocation, imparts OAM to scattered x rays. Unlike single dislocations, a double dislocation does not introduce magnetic frustration, and the ASI equilibrates to its antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state. The topological charge of the defect differs with respect to the structural and magnetic order; thus, x-ray diffraction from the ASI produces photons with even and odd OAM quantum numbers at the structural and AFM Bragg conditions, respectively. The magnetic transitions of the ASI allow the AFM OAM beams to be switched on and off by modest variations of temperature and applied magnetic field. These results demonstrate ASIs can serve as metasurfaces for reconfigurable x-ray optics that could enable selective probes of electronic and magnetic properties.

Original languageEnglish
Article number117201
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number11
StatePublished - Mar 15 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 authors. Published by the American Physical Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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