Synaptic Mitochondria Sustain More Damage than Non-Synaptic Mitochondria after Traumatic Brain Injury and Are Protected by Cyclosporine A

Jacqueline R. Kulbe, Rachel L. Hill, Indrapal N. Singh, Juan A. Wang, Edward D. Hall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

Currently, there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmacotherapies for the treatment of those with traumatic brain injury (TBI). As central mediators of the secondary injury cascade, mitochondria are promising therapeutic targets for prevention of cellular death and dysfunction after TBI. One of the most promising and extensively studied mitochondrial targeted TBI therapies is inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) by the FDA-approved drug, cyclosporine A (CsA). A number of studies have evaluated the effects of CsA on total brain mitochondria after TBI; however, no study has investigated the effects of CsA on isolated synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria. Synaptic mitochondria are considered essential for proper neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity, and their dysfunction has been implicated in neurodegeneration. Synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria have heterogeneous characteristics, but their heterogeneity can be masked in total mitochondrial (synaptic and non-synaptic) preparations. Therefore, it is essential that mitochondria targeted pharmacotherapies, such as CsA, be evaluated in both populations. This is the first study to examine the effects of CsA on isolated synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria after experimental TBI. We conclude that synaptic mitochondria sustain more damage than non-synaptic mitochondria 24 h after severe controlled cortical impact injury (CCI), and that intraperitoneal administration of CsA (20 mg/kg) 15 min after injury improves synaptic and non-synaptic respiration, with a significant improvement being seen in the more severely impaired synaptic population. As such, CsA remains a promising neuroprotective candidate for the treatment of those with TBI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1291-1301
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Volume34
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2017.

Keywords

  • cyclosporine A
  • mitochondria
  • neuroprotection
  • synaptic and non-synaptic
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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