This study examines stress, mental health, and well-being in K-12 teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic Fall 2020 school restart and assesses differences in mental health and well-being by mode of instruction: online, in-person, or a hybrid. K-12 teachers (n = 5856) across three states completed an online survey with questions pertaining to teacher’s experiences surrounding COVID during the Fall 2020 school restart. Using OLS regression, we found that teachers who engaged in dual modalities (both online and in-person and online and in the school building on a regular basis) reported greater levels of perceived stress, anxiety and depression, and lower levels of well-being than those who engaged in “single” modalities (online but not in the building and in-person). This study highlights the additional demands and challenges of balancing two modes of instruction during the pandemic and the toll it took on teacher’s mental health and well-being. Impact Statement Teachers commonly report high levels of occupational stress, and the challenges and demands that resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic have only increased. Results from this study found that teachers who juggle both in-person and online instruction had significantly higher levels of stress, greater levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, and worse psychological well-being than teachers who taught only in-person or online. Examining factors that contribute to high levels of stress and mental health challenges in teachers is necessary for creating school contexts that foster both teachers’ and students’ health and well-being as well as academic performance. The development of robust support systems designed to reduce teacher stress and workload will be of paramount importance to combat teacher burnout and attrition in the face of continuing and future challenges.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSchool Psychology Review
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 National Association of School Psychologists.


  • Covid-19
  • Samuel Y. Song
  • mental health
  • teachers
  • teaching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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