Teaching Mathematics with Technology: TPACK and Effective Teaching Practices

Christopher R. Rakes, Michele L. Stites, Robert N. Ronau, Sarah B. Bush, Molly H. Fisher, Farshid Safi, Siddhi Desai, Ashley Schmidt, Janet B. Andreasen, Jon Saderholm, Lisa Amick, Margaret J. Mohr-Schroeder, Julian Viera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This paper examines how 17 secondary mathematics teacher candidates (TCs) in four university teacher preparation programs implemented technology in their classrooms to teach for conceptual understanding in online, hybrid, and face to face classes during COVID-19. Using the Professional Development: Research, Implementation, and Evaluation (PrimeD) framework, TCs, classroom mentor teachers, field experience supervisors, and university faculty formed a Networked Improvement Community (NIC) to discuss a commonly agreed upon problem of practice and a change idea to implement in the classroom. Through Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, participants documented their improvement efforts and refinements to the change idea and then reported back to the NIC at the subsequent monthly meeting. The Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge framework (TPACK) and the TPACK levels rubric were used to examine how teacher candidates implemented technology for Mathematics conceptual understanding. The Mathematics Classroom Observation Protocol for Practices (MCOP2) was used to further examine how effective mathematics teaching practices (e.g., student engagement) were implemented by TCs. MCOP2 results indicated that TCs increased their use of effective mathematics teaching practices. However, growth in TPACK was not significant. A relationship between TPACK and MCOP2 was not evident, indicating a potential need for explicit focus on using technology for mathematics conceptual understanding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number133
JournalEducation Sciences
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the National Science Foundation, grant numbers 2013250, 2013397, 2013266, 2013256.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Education technology
  • Effective teaching practices
  • Mathematics education
  • Teacher preparation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Computer Science (all)
  • Education
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Public Administration
  • Computer Science Applications


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