Technical Note: A method for determination of titanium dioxide concentration in fecal samples

Ashley L. Fowler, Susan H. Hayes, Andrea D. Crum, Laurie M. Lawrence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Titanium dioxide has been used as a marker for determining diet digestibility indirectly, but some authors have expressed difficulty in measuring TiO2 concentrations in fecal material. We developed an accurate and precise method to determine TiO2 concentrations in equine feces. The method includes dry-ashing samples, digestion with (NH4)2SO4 in concentrated sulfuric acid, followed by the addition of H2O2 to produce a yellow to orange color that can be read spectrophotometrically. Accuracy was tested by spike recovery, and precision was tested by examining the coefficient of variation (CV) between duplicates of 449 individual samples. The method described here was compared with a previously published method by examining CV between duplicates of samples analyzed using both methods and comparing them using a paired t-Test. Titanium dioxide spike recovery averaged 106%, and the CV between duplicates averaged 4.0%, with 79% of sample pairs having a CV of <5%. When compared with a previously published method, the method described here had a lower CV between duplicates (P < 0.0001). The method described here provides an accurate and precise quantitative analytical procedure for TiO2 in equine fecal samples.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberskac074
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Dr Merlin Lindemann and Dr Tayo Adedokun for their review of the manuscript

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


  • digestibility
  • feces
  • marker
  • method
  • titanium dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics


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