Temporal-Spatial Values During a 180° Step Turn in People with Unilateral Lower Limb Amputation

Sheila M. Clemens, Glenn K. Klute, Neva J. Kirk-Sanchez, Michele A. Raya, Kyoung Jae Kim, Ignacio A. Gaunaurd, Robert S. Gailey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Daily ambulation with a prosthesis often involves turning to negotiate within the home and community environments, however how people with lower limb loss perform turns is infrequently studied. Administering a common clinical outcome measure to capture turn performance data provides a convenient means of assessing this ubiquitous activity. Research question: What temporal-spatial parameters are exhibited by people with unilateral lower limb amputation while performing a 180˚ turn task? Methods: Forty community-ambulating subjects with unilateral lower limb amputation (20 transtibial amputees, 20 transfemoral amputees) performed the Component Timed-Up-and-Go (cTUG) test turning once in each direction, both toward the intact and toward the prosthetic limb. An instrumented walkway captured temporal-spatial parameters during performance of the 180˚ turn task of the cTUG, while a custom iPad application recorded time and number of steps to perform the turn. Comparisons between turn direction and level of amputation during the cTUG and temporal-spatial results were assessed. Results: People with lower limb amputation spent more time on their intact limb while turning than their prosthetic limb regardless of the position of the intact limb, and those with transfemoral amputation spent significantly more time over the intact limb than those with transtibial amputation. Additionally, subjects with transfemoral amputation performed the turn significantly faster when turning with an inner intact limb. Significance: Amputees use different movement strategies with altered temporal-spatial characteristics to turn depending on the direction of the turn and the level of amputation. Clinical use of the cTUG could provide evidence supporting prosthetic prescription practice and introduction of novel physical therapy interventions for individuals with lower limb amputation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-281
Number of pages6
JournalGait and Posture
StatePublished - Jun 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.


  • Amputee mobility
  • Lower limb amputation
  • Outcome measures
  • Turning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation


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