Temporal stability and moderating effects of age and sex on CNTRaCS task performance

Milton E. Strauss, Christopher J. McLouth, Deanna M. Barch, Cameron S. Carter, James M. Gold, Steven J. Luck, Angus W. MacDonald, J. Daniel Ragland, Charan Ranganath, Brian P. Keane, Steven M. Silverstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Research in schizophrenia has increasingly focused on incorporating measures from cognitive neuroscience, but little is known about their psychometric characteristics. Here, we extend prior research by reporting on temporal stability, as well as age and sex effects, for cognitive neuroscience paradigms optimized as part of the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical applications for Schizophrenia consortium. Ninety-nine outpatients with schizophrenia and 131 healthy controls performed 5 tasks assessing 4 constructs at 3 sessions. The constructs were (1) Goal maintenance (Dot Probe Expectancy [DPX] and AX continuous performance tasks [AX-CPT]); (2) Episodic memory (Relational and Item-Specific Encoding and Retrieval task [RiSE]); (3) Visual integration (Jittered Orientation Visual Integration task [JOVI]); and (4) Perceptual gain control (Contrast-Contrast Effect Task [CCE]). Patients performed worse than controls on all but the CCE, and the magnitude of these group differences was stable across sessions, with no sex differences observed. Improvements over sessions were seen for the AX-CPT, the DPX, and the JOVI though practice effects for the AX-CPT and the DPX were primarily present in older participants. For the AX-CPT and the JOVI, practice effects were larger for T1 to T2 than for T2 to T3. Age was associated with poor associative recognition on the RiSE and accuracy on the JOVI. Test-rest reliability ranged from poor for the JOVI threshold score to adequate to good for the DPX, AX-CPT, and JOVI accuracy measures, with RiSE and CCE measures in the moderate range. These results suggest that group differences in DPX, AX-CPT, RiSE, and JOVI are robust and consistent across repeated testing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)835-844
Number of pages10
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2014


  • cognitive neuroscience
  • episodic memory
  • goal maintenance
  • psychometrics
  • schizophrenia
  • visual integration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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