Test Batteries After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Context: There is a lack of consensus regarding test batteries for return to sport (RTS) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Objective: To report the RTS test batteries for individuals after ACLR and to examine alignment with the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC). Finally, to examine how published RTS batteries prior to the AAOS AUC (2010-2015) compared with those after publication of the AUC (2016-2020). Data Source: A systematic search of PubMed (2010-2020). Study Selection: Studies were included if they were published from 2010 to 2020, patients underwent primary ACLR and were tested between 6 months and 2 years postoperatively and included a minimum of 2 assessments. Studies were excluded if patients were tested outside the designated time; had undergone a revision, contralateral, or multiligament injury; included healthy participants; were level 5 evidence or the study was a systematic review. A total of 1012 articles were reviewed and 63 met the criteria. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Data Extraction: Information regarding the RTS batteries and patient demographics were extracted from the included articles. Results: A total of 63 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria (22 from 2010-2015 and 41 from 2016-2020). The most common RTS batteries included the hop test, quadriceps strength test, and patient-reported outcome measures. No study met all 7 AUC; the most common criteria met were functional skills (98.4%), followed by confidence (22.2%), then range of motion and knee stability (20.6%). Conclusion: The test batteries in the current literature show high variability and a lack of essential components necessary for RTS. No study met the AUC guidelines, suggesting a disconnect between recommended guidelines and clinical practice. Test battery research has expanded over the past decade; however, standardized, clinically applicable batteries that encompass all criteria are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-215
Number of pages11
JournalSports Health
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s).


  • anterior cruciate ligament
  • appropriate use criteria
  • return to sport
  • test batteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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