Textural characterization of calcium salts-induced mung bean starch-flaxseed protein composite gels as dysphagia food

Cong Min, Qi Yang, Huayin Pu, Yungang Cao, Wenhui Ma, Jiwei Kuang, Junrong Huang, Youling L. Xiong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Effects of calcium gluconate (CG), calcium lactate (CL) and calcium dihydrogen phosphate (CDP) on the structural and functional properties of mung bean starch (MBS)-flaxseed protein (FP) composite gels were investigated to explore the feasibility of developing dysphagia food. The water-immobilizing, rheological and structural properties of MBS-FP composite gels adding different calcium salts (10, 30, and 50 mmol/L) were analyzed by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance measurement, rheological and textural analyses, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results showed that calcium salts imparted various soft gel properties to the composite gels by influencing the interactions between MBS and FP. Calcium salts could affect the conformation of amylose chains, accelerate the aggregation of FP molecules, and increase the cross-linking between starch and protein aggregates, resulting in the formation of large aggregates and a weak gel network. Consequently, calcium salts-induced composite gels showed lower viscoelastic moduli and gel strength than the control gel. In particular, different calcium salts had various impacts on the gel properties due to their diverse ability forming hydrogen bonds. Compared with CL and CDP, the gels containing CG presented the higher viscoelastic moduli and hardness, and possessed an irregular cellular network with the increased pore number and the decreased wall thickness. The gel containing 50 mmol/L CL had the highest water-holding capacity, in all the gels tested, by retaining more immobilized and mobile water in the compact gel network with larger cavities. The gels adding CDP presented lower hardness and gumminess due to the obvious lamellar structure within the network. International dysphagia diet standardization initiative (IDDSI) tests indicated that the gels adding CG and CL could be categorized into level 6 (soft and bite-sized) dysphagia diet, while the samples adding CDP could be classified into level 5 (minced and moist). These findings provide insights for the development of the novel soft gel-type dysphagia food.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112355
JournalFood Research International
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • Calcium salts
  • Composite gels
  • Dysphagia food

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Textural characterization of calcium salts-induced mung bean starch-flaxseed protein composite gels as dysphagia food'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this