THE 2023 RELEASE OF Cloudy

Marios Chatzikos, Stefano Bianchi, Francesco Camilloni, Priyanka Chakraborty, Chamani M. Gunasekera, Francisco Guzmán, Jonathan S. Milby, Arnab Sarkar, Gargi Shaw, Peter A.M. van Hoof, Gary J. Ferland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


We describe the 2023 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. Since the previous major release, migrations of our online services motivated us to adopt git as our version control system. This change alone led us to adopt an annual release scheme, accompanied by a short release paper, the present being the inaugural. Significant changes to our atomic and molecular data have improved the accuracy of Cloudy predictions: we have upgraded our instance of the Chianti database from version 7 to 10; our H- and He-like collisional rates to improved theoretical values; our molecular data to the most recent LAMDA database, and several chemical reaction rates to their most recent UDfA and KiDA values. Finally, we describe our progress on upgrading Cloudy's capabilities to meet the requirements of the X-ray microcalorimeters aboard the upcoming XRISM and Athena missions, and outline future developments that will make Cloudy of use to the X-ray community.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-343
Number of pages17
JournalRevista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. All rights reserved.


  • atomic data
  • galaxies: active
  • globular clusters: general
  • molecular data
  • software: development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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