The aortic-femoral arterial stiffness gradient: An atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study

Keeron Stone, Simon Fryer, Michelle L. Meyer, Anna Kucharska-Newton, James Faulkner, Gabriel Zieff, Craig Paterson, Daniel Credeur, Kunihiro Matsushita, Timothy M. Hughes, Hirofumi Tanaka, Lee Stoner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background:The aortic to femoral arterial stiffness gradient (af-SG) may be a novel measure of arterial health and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but its association with CVD risk factors and CVD status, and whether or not they differ from the referent measure, carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV), is not known.Method:Accordingly, we compared the associations of the af-SG and cfPWV with (i) age and traditional CVD risk factors and (ii) CVD status. We evaluated 4183 older-aged (75.2 ± 5.0 years) men and women in the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. cfPWV and femoral-ankle PWV (faPWV) were measured using an automated cardiovascular screening device. The af-SG was calculated as faPWV divided by cfPWV. Associations of af-SG and cfPWV with age, CVD risk factors (age, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, glucose and blood lipid levels) and CVD status (hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke) were determined using linear and logistic regression analyses.Results:(i) the af-SG and cfPWV demonstrated comparable associations with age and CVD risk factors, except BMI. (ii) a low af-SG was associated with diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and stroke, whilst a high cfPWV was only associated with diabetes.Conclusion:Although future studies are necessary to confirm clinical utility, the af-SG is a promising tool that may provide a unique picture of hemodynamic integration and identification of CVD risk when compared with cfPWV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1370-1377
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank the staff and participants of the ARIC study for their important contributions. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract nos. (HHSN268201700001I, HHSN268201700002I, HHSN268201700003I, HHSN268201700005I, HHSN268201700004I). The study was also supported by R01AG053938.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.


  • cardiovascular disease
  • pulse-wave velocity ratio
  • risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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