The Association of Co-morbid Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety With All-Cause Mortality and Cardiac Rehospitalization in Patients With Heart Failure

Abdullah S. Alhurani, Rebecca L. Dekker, Mona A. Abed, Amani Khalil, Marwa H. Al Zaghal, Kyoung Suk Lee, Gia Mudd-Martin, Martha J. Biddle, Terry A. Lennie, Debra K. Moser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) experience multiple psychologic symptoms. Depression and anxiety are independently associated with survival. Whether co-morbid symptoms of anxiety and depression are associated with outcomes in patients with HF is unknown. Objective: To determine whether co-morbid symptoms of depression and anxiety are associated with all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for cardiac causes in patients with HF. Method: A total of 1260 patients with HF participated in this study. Cox regression analysis was used to determine whether co-morbid symptoms of depression and anxiety independently predicted all-cause mortality and cardiac rehospitalization. Anxiety and depression were treated first as continuous-level variables, then as categorical variables using standard published cut points. Patients were then divided into 4 groups based on the presence of anxiety and depression symptoms. Results: When entered as a continuous variable, the interaction between anxiety and depression (hazard ratio = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03; p = 0.002) was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with HF. When entered as a categorical variable, co-morbid symptoms of depression and anxiety (vs no symptoms or symptoms of anxiety or depression alone) independently predicted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 2.59; 95% CI: 1.49-4.49; p = 0.001). None of the psychologic variables was a predictor of cardiac rehospitalization in patients with HF whether using the continuous or categorical level of measurement. Conclusion: To improve mortality outcomes in patients with HF, attention must be paid by health care providers to the assessment and management of co-morbid symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-380
Number of pages10
JournalPsychosomatics
Volume56
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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