The complete mitochondrial genome and novel gene arrangement in Nesodiprion zhejiangensis Zhou & Xiao (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae)

Chao Bai, Yunfei Wu, Austin Merchant, Danjie Xie, Jie Cao, Qinghua Wang, Xuguo Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the sawfly, Nesodiprion zhejiangensis Zhou & Xiao, was sequenced, assembled, and deposited in GenBank (Accession Number: OM501121). The 15,660 bp N. zhejiangensis mitogenome encodes for 2 ribosomal RNAs (rrnL and rrnS), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and an AT-rich region of 450 bp in length. The nucleotide composition is biased toward adenine and thymine (A + T = 81.8%). Each PCG is initiated by an ATN codon, except for cox2, which starts with a TTG. Of 13 PCGs, 9 have a TAA termination codon, while the remainder terminate with a TAG or a single T. All tRNAs have the classic cloverleaf structure, except for the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNAval, which forms a simple loop. There are 49 helices belonging to 6 domains in rrnL and 30 helices belonging to 4 domains in rrnS. In comparison to the ancestral architecture, N. zhejiangensis has the most rearranged mitogenome in Symphyta, in which rearrangement events of local inversion and transposition are identified in three gene clusters. Specifically, the main hotspot of gene rearrangement occurred between rrnS and trnY, and rearranged from rrnS-(AT-rich region)-I-Q-M-nd2-W–C-Y to rrnS-Q-W–C-nd2-I-M-(AT-rich region)-Y, involving a local inversion event of a large gene cluster and transposition events of some tRNAs. Transposition of trnA and trnR (rearranged from A-R to R-A) was observed at the nd3-nd5 gene junction while shuffling of trnP and trnT (rearranged from T-P to P–T) occurred at the nd4l-nd6 gene junction. While illegitimate inter-mtDNA recombination might explain the opposite orientations of transcription between rrnS and trnY, transposition events of tRNA in some gene blocks can be accounted for by the tandem duplication/random loss (TDRL) model. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that N. zhejiangensis is closely related to congeneric species N. biremis and N. japonicus, which together form a sister lineage with the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number41
JournalFunctional and Integrative Genomics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • Genome architecture
  • Mitogenome
  • Nesodiprion zhejiangensis Zhou & Xiao
  • Phylogenetic analysis
  • Rearrangement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics


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