The complete mitochondrial genome and novel gene arrangement of the unique-headed bug stenopirates sp. (Hemiptera: Enicocephalidae)

Hu Li, Hui Liu, Aimin Shi, Pavel Štys, Xuguo Zhou, Wanzhi Cai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

118 Scopus citations

Abstract

Many of true bugs are important insect pests to cultivated crops and some are important vectors of human diseases, but few cladistic analyses have addressed relationships among the seven infraorders of Heteroptera. The Enicocephalomorpha and Nepomorpha are consider the basal groups of Heteroptera, but the basal-most lineage remains unresolved. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of the unique-headed bug Stenopirates sp., the first mitochondrial genome sequenced from Enicocephalomorpha. The Stenopirates sp. mitochondrial genome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 15, 384 bp in length, and contains 37 genes and a large non-coding fragment. The gene order differs substantially from other known insect mitochondrial genomes, with rearrangements of both tRNA genes and protein-coding genes. The overall AT content (82.5%) of Stenopirates sp. is the highest among all the known heteropteran mitochondrial genomes. The strand bias is consistent with other true bugs with negative GC-skew and positive AT-skew for the J-strand. The heteropteran mitochondrial atp8 exhibits the highest evolutionary rate, whereas cox1 appears to have the lowest rate. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed between the variation of nucleotide substitutions and the GC content of each protein-coding gene. A microsatellite was identified in the putative control region. Finally, phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that Enicocephalomorpha is the sister group to all the remaining Heteroptera.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere29419
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 3 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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