The cranial nerve skywalk: A 3D tutorial of cranial nerves in a virtual platform

April Richardson-Hatcher, Matthew Hazzard, German Ramirez-Yanez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways is difficult using two-dimensional (2D) illustrations alone. Three-dimensional (3D) models aid the teacher in describing intricate and complex anatomical structures and help students visualize them. The study of the cranial nerves can be supplemented with 3D, which permits the students to fully visualize their distribution within the craniofacial complex. This article describes the construction and usage of a virtual anatomy platform in Second Life™, which contains 3D models of the cranial nerves III, V, VII, and IX. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk features select cranial nerves and the associated autonomic pathways in an immersive online environment. This teaching supplement was introduced to groups of pre-healthcare professional students in gross anatomy courses at both institutions and student feedback is included. Anat Sci Educ 7: 469-478.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-478
Number of pages10
JournalAnatomical Sciences Education
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 American Association of Anatomists.


  • 3D anatomy
  • Cranial nerves
  • Gross anatomy education
  • Medical education
  • Neuroanatomy education
  • Second Life
  • Virtual learning
  • Virtual team learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Histology
  • Embryology


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