The Design and Analysis of Large Solar PV Farm Configurations with DC-Connected Battery Systems

Oluwaseun M. Akeyo, Vandana Rallabandi, Nicholas Jewell, Dan M. Ionel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Typically, solar inverters curtail or 'clip' the available power from the photovoltaic (PV) system when it exceeds the maximum ac capacity. This article discusses a battery system connected to the dc link of an inverter to recuperate this PV energy. Contrary to conventional approaches, which employ two DC-DC converters, one each for the battery and solar PV system, the proposed configuration utilizes a single DC-DC converter capable of simultaneously operating as a charge controller and a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) device. In addition to improving the overall system capacity factor, increasing the conversion efficiencies, and ensuring MPPT stability, the proposed configuration offers a simple solution for adding energy storage to existing PV installations. With this configuration, the excess power that will otherwise be curtailed due to inverter rating limitations is stored in the battery and supplied to the grid during periods of reduced irradiance. Moreover, a systematic methodology for sizing a dc-bus connected battery to minimize total PV energy curtailed was developed using an annual PV generation profile at the Louisville Gas and Electric and Kentucky Utilities E. W. Brown solar facility at Kentucky. The detailed behavior of the proposed system and its power electronics controls and operations were validated with case studies developed in PSCAD/EMTDC software for variable power generation and PV output power smoothing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8968398
Pages (from-to)2903-2912
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1972-2012 IEEE.


  • Battery
  • DC-DC converter
  • PV curtailment
  • battery sizing
  • charge controller
  • energy storage
  • maximum power point tracking (MPPT)
  • photovoltaic (PV)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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