The effect of reduced CP, synthetic amino acid supplemented diets on growth performance and nutrient excretion in wean to Finish swine

Caitlin E. Vonderohe, Kayla M. Mills, Shule Liu, Matthew D. Asmus, Emily R. Otto-Tice, Brian T. Richert, Ji Qin Ni, John Scott Radcliffe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mixed sex pigs (n = 720) were placed in 12 rooms (Purdue Swine Environmental Research Building) to measure the effect of reduced crude protein (CP), amino acid (AA)-supplemented diets on growth and the carcass. Pigs were blocked by body weight (BW) and gender and allotted to room and pen (10 mixed-sex pigs/pen). Pigs were fed a nine-phase, wean-finish program. Control pigs consumed corn-soybean meal-distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diets containing no to minimal (Met) synthetic AA. The 2X diet was formulated to meet the seventh most-limiting AA, and balanced using synthetic AAs to meet all AA needs. The 1X diet was formulated to meet a CP value halfway between the control and 2X diet, and also balanced using synthetic AAs to meet all AA needs. Diets were formulated to identical net energy concentrations and balanced to meet standard ileal digestible NRC 2012 AA requirements. Pit vacuum samples were collected at the end of each growth phase for analyses of nitrogen, C and dry matter (DM). Pigs fed the Control and 1X diet grew faster (P < 0.005), had greater gain:feed (P < 0.001), and were heavier at market (P < 0.001) than animals fed the 2X diet. No consistent effects of diet were observed on average daily feed intake. Carcass data were analyzed for sex, diet and sex∗diet effects. Reductions in dietary CP resulted in a linear reduction in ammonium nitrogen excretion per kg of BW gain in Nursery (P < 0.001) and Grow-Finish (P < 0.001) phases. Reductions in dietary CP, with synthetic AA supplementation resulted in a linear reduction in total nitrogen excreted per kg BW gain in the Grow-Finish phase (P < 0.001) and overall (P < 0.001). Total mineral excretion per kg gain was reduced in pigs fed 1X and 2X diets compared with control-fed pigs (P < 0.005). Reductions in dietary CP of ~3 and 5%-units from wean-finish result in reductions of total N excretion of 11.7 and 24.4%, respectively. Reduced performance and carcass characteristics observed in pigs fed the 2X diets indicates an inaccurate estimate of NRC 2012 AA requirements or ratios to lysine in a low CP diet.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberskac075
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Volume100
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science.

Keywords

  • Amino acids
  • Environmental footprint
  • Protein
  • Swine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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