The effects of a closed-chain, eccentric training program on hamstring injuries of a professional football cheerleading team

Jay S. Greenstein, Barton N. Bishop, Jean S. Edward, Robert V. Topp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: Hamstring injuries are a common occurrence among professional football cheerleaders. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention on hamstring injury-associated pain during the course of the football season among professional football cheerleaders. Methods: Forty-three female cheerleaders participated in an eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention protocol provided by doctors of chiropractic that incorporated loops of elastic-band or Thera-Band Loops (Hygenic Corporation, Akron, OH) during practice and at home during the regular football season. Hamstring injury-related pain was assessed in June, during team selection; in September, at the start of the season; and in December, at the end of season. No intervention was applied between June and September, although the sample participated in 4 hours of practice 2 to 3 times per week. The intervention was applied to the entire sample regardless of hamstring injury-related pain during the regular football season between September and December. The interventions included 2 exercises and were completed bilaterally 2 times per week at each biweekly practice and were encouraged to be done at least 3 additional times per week at home on nonpractice days. Results: Among the subsample who reported hamstring-related injury pain between June and September, the exercise intervention significantly decreased (P < .007) pain between September (6.07 ± 0.58) and December (3.67 ± 0.65). Conclusions: The eccentric, closed-chain hamstring exercise intervention reduced hamstring injury-related pain among this group of professional football cheerleaders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-200
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study received funding from the Hygenic Corporation, which is the company that produces Thera-Band, the product used in this study. The study funding was managed by the Sport and Spine Rehab Clinical Research Foundation. Dr Barton Bishop and Dr. Jay Greenstein are speakers who receive funding from Performance Health, a subsidiary company of Hygenic Corporation. The authors report no other conflicts of interest.


  • Chiropractic
  • Exercise
  • Leg injuries
  • Pain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chiropractic


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