The Effects of Agricultural Product Exports on Environmental Quality

Sayed Saghaian, Hosein Mohammadi, Morteza Mohammadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Concerns about the environmental degradation of agricultural activities have increased with trade openness and globalization. In this study, the effects of agricultural product exports on environmental quality are investigated using panel data and instrumental variable regression models for 23 developed and 43 developing countries during 2002–2020. The results indicate that the expansion of agricultural product exports from developing countries has a detrimental effect on the environmental quality of these countries. Total agricultural exports increase pollution due to greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries, while they decrease the N2O emissions in developed countries. Moreover, raw agricultural exports have a positive and significant effect on agricultural pollution emissions in developing countries, while they have a negative and significant effect on N2O emissions in developed countries. In many developing countries, export development is an important policy objective, and agricultural exports are among the most important export sectors. Hence, policymakers need to consider the effects of agricultural product exports on the environment and increase farmers’ awareness about the environmental consequences of agricultural activities. A better understanding of the environmental impacts of agricultural exports from developing countries is highly recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13857
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank the editors and the reviewers. Sayed Saghaian acknowledges the support from the United States Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Hatch project No. KY004063, under accession number 7002927.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • agricultural products
  • environment
  • openness
  • pollution
  • sustainable exports

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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