The effects of shoulder plyometric training on proprioception and selected muscle performance characteristics

Kathleen A. Swanik, Scott M. Lephart, C. Buz Swanik, Susan P. Lephart, David A. Stone, Freddie H. Fu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

152 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of plyometric training of the shoulder internal rotators on proprioception, kinesthesia, and selected muscle performance characteristics in female swimmers. Twenty-four female division I swimmers were evaluated before and after a 6-week plyometric training program. Proprioception and kinesthesia were assessed for internal and external rotation at 0°, 75°, and 90% of the subject's maximum external rotation. The Biodex II was used to assess strength characteristics at 60°/s, 240°/s, and 450°/s. Plyometric training sessions (2 times/week) involved 3 sets of 15 repetitions with a trampoline, weighted balls, and elastic tubing. A 2-way analysis of variance revealed significant improvement (P < .05) in proprioception at 0° moving into external rotation, as well as 75° and 90% moving into both internal and external rotation. Kinesthesia demonstrated significant improvement for all test conditions after plyometric training. Significant gains in selected muscle performance characteristics included time to peak torque (60°/s and 240°/s), amortization time (450°/s), and torque decrement (240°/s). This study suggests that plyometric activities may facilitate neural adaptations that enhance proprioception, kinesthesia, and muscle performance characteristics. Significant neuromuscular benefits may be attained if they are implemented earlier into shoulder rehabilitation programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)579-586
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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