The Five-Factor Personality Inventory for ICD-11: A facet-level assessment of the ICD-11 trait model

Joshua R. Oltmanns, Thomas A. Widiger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


The International Classification of Diseases-11th edition (ICD-11) includes a dimensional model of personality disorder assessing five domains of maladaptive personality. To avoid unnecessary complexity, the ICD-11 model includes assessment of personality traits only at the domain level. A measure exists to assess the domains of the ICD-11 model (the Personality Inventory for ICD-11), yet a more rich and useful assessment of personality is provided at the facet level. We used items from the scales assessing the five-factor model of personality disorder to develop the Five-Factor Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (FFiCD), a new 121-item, 20-facet, self-report measure of the ICD-11 maladaptive personality domains at the facet level. Further, the FFiCD includes 47 short scales organized beneath the facets-at the "nuance" level. Items were selected and evaluated empirically across two independent data collections, and the resulting scales were further validated in a third data collection. Correlational and factor analytic results comparing the scales of the FFiCD to the five-factor model, Personality Inventory for ICD-11, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 supported the validity of the theoretical structure of the FFiCD and the ICD-11 model. The FFiCD may be a useful instrument for clinicians and researchers interested in a more specific assessment of maladaptive personality according to the dimensional ICD-11 personality disorder model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-71
Number of pages12
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the National Institute of Aging under Award F31AG055233. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Psychological Association.


  • DSM- 5
  • Five-factor model
  • ICD-11
  • Personality assessment
  • Personality disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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