The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) in psychiatric practice and research

Roman Kotov, David C. Cicero, Christopher C. Conway, Colin G. Deyoung, Alexandre Dombrovski, Nicholas R. Eaton, Michael B. First, Miriam K. Forbes, Steven E. Hyman, Katherine G. Jonas, Robert F. Krueger, Robert D. Latzman, James J. Li, Brady D. Nelson, Darrel A. Regier, Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Camilo J. Ruggero, Leonard J. Simms, Andrew E. Skodol, Irwin D. WaldmanMonika A. Waszczuk, David Watson, Thomas A. Widiger, Sylia Wilson, Aidan G.C. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) has emerged out of the quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology. This approach identifies psychopathology constructs based on patterns of co-variation among signs and symptoms. The initial HiTOP model, which was published in 2017, is based on a large literature that spans decades of research. HiTOP is a living model that undergoes revision as new data become available. Here we discuss advantages and practical considerations of using this system in psychiatric practice and research. We especially highlight limitations of HiTOP and ongoing efforts to address them. We describe differences and similarities between HiTOP and existing diagnostic systems. Next, we review the types of evidence that informed development of HiTOP, including populations in which it has been studied and data on its validity. The paper also describes how HiTOP can facilitate research on genetic and environmental causes of psychopathology as well as the search for neurobiologic mechanisms and novel treatments. Furthermore, we consider implications for public health programs and prevention of mental disorders. We also review data on clinical utility and illustrate clinical application of HiTOP. Importantly, the model is based on measures and practices that are already used widely in clinical settings. HiTOP offers a way to organize and formalize these techniques. This model already can contribute to progress in psychiatry and complement traditional nosologies. Moreover, HiTOP seeks to facilitate research on linkages between phenotypes and biological processes, which may enable construction of a system that encompasses both biomarkers and precise clinical description.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1666-1678
Number of pages13
JournalPsychological Medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Jul 2 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press.


  • Classification
  • dimensional
  • externalizing
  • internalizing
  • nosology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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