B cells, also known as B lymphocytes or lymphoid lineage cells, are a historically understudied cell population with regard to brain-related injuries and diseases. However, an increasing number of publications have begun to elucidate the different phenotypes and roles B cells can undertake during central nervous system (CNS) pathology, including following ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. B cell phenotype is intrinsically linked to function following stroke, as they may be beneficial or detrimental depending on the subset, timing, and microenvironment. Factors such as age, sex, and presence of co-morbidity also influence the behavior of post-stroke B cells. The following review will briefly describe B cells from origination to senescence, explore B cell function by integrating decades of stroke research, differentiate between the known B cell subtypes and their respective activity, discuss some of the physiological influences on B cells as well as the influence of B cells on certain physiological functions, and highlight the differences between B cells in healthy and disease states with particular emphasis in the context of ischemic stroke.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank Tom Dolan, M.S., and Matt Hazard for medical illustrations, and the Whole Brain Microscopy Facility (WBMF) in the UT Southwestern Department of Neurology, Dallas, TX, USA (RRID:SCR_017949).
This review is supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) NINDS NS088555 to AMS, NIA T32AG057461 to MKM, NINDS 5T32NS077889 to TAU, and the AHA Established Investigator Award 19EIA34760279 (AMS).
© 2022, The Author(s).
- Adaptive immunity
- Age-associated B cells
- Ischemic stroke
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy