The impact of x-ray incident angle on indirect fluoroscopy skin dose estimation

Quan Chen, Jie Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Indirect dosimetry to calculate peak skin dose (PSD) is generally based on reference air kerma or kerma-area-product, with effects of table attenuation, inverse square law and backscatter factor applied. When the incident x-ray beam angle changes, these factors would change as well. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of incident x-ray beam angle on the accuracy of indirect PSD calculation and develop a correction method. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to assist analytical equation derivation and to validate the developed analytical method. Direct PSD measurements were performed a Siemens Artis Zee biplane fluoroscopy and a GE OEC C-Arm at different angles to validate the proposed correction method and its independence of fluoroscopy systems. Compared with MC simulated PSD, the derived analytical equation successfully predicts these PSD changes for incident angles of 0, 15, 30 and 40 degrees, with the residual error magnitude of 0.3%-3.1% corresponding to different SSDs. The agreement between calculated PSD also agrees well with direct measurement.

Original languageEnglish
Article number015005
JournalBiomedical Physics and Engineering Express
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 20 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Physiology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Informatics


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