The Intra-and Inter-rater Reliability of an Arm Care Screening Tool in High School Baseball Coaches

Kyle A. Matsel, Stephanie N. Brown, Matt C. Hoch, Robert J. Butler, Philip M. Westgate, Terry R. Malone, Tim L. Uhl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background Preseason movement screening can identify modifiable risk factors, deterioration of function, and potential for injury in baseball players. Limited resources and time intensive testing procedures prevent high school coaches from accurately performing frequent movement screens on their players. Purpose To establish the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of a novel arm care screening tool based on the concepts of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) and Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA™) in high school coaches. Study Design Methodological intra-and inter-rater reliability study Methods Thirty-one male high school baseball players (15.9 years ± 1.06) were independently scored on the Arm Care Screen (ACS) by three examiners (two coaches, one physical therapist) in real-time and again seven days later by reviewing video recordings of each players’ initial screening performance. Results from each examiner were compared within and between raters using Cohen’s kappa and percent absolute agreement. Results Substantial to excellent intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were established among all raters for each component of the ACS. The mean Cohen’s kappa coefficient for intra-rater reliability was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.95) and percent absolute agreement ranged from 0.82-0.94 among all raters. Inter-rater reliability demonstrated a mean Cohen’s kappa value of 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.99) while percent absolute agreement between raters ranged from 0.81-1.00. Intra-and inter-rater reliability did not differ between raters with various movement screening experience (p>0.05). Conclusions High school baseball coaches with limited experience screening movement can reliably score all three components of the ACS in less than three minutes with minimal training Level of Evidence Level 3, Reliability study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1532-1540
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, North American Sports Medicine Institute. All rights reserved.


  • Baseball
  • Movement system
  • Reliability
  • Screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'The Intra-and Inter-rater Reliability of an Arm Care Screening Tool in High School Baseball Coaches'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this