The logic of campaign spending in mixed-member electoral systems

Betül Demirkaya, Patrick Cunha Silva, Brian F. Crisp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this research note we reason that campaign strategies that are strategic in “pure” majoritarian systems and “pure” proportional systems may (or may not) change when the two are combined in a mixed-member electoral system with a majoritarian and a proportional tier. We argue that campaign effort by individual candidates should be a function of the tier or tiers in which the candidate is competing and whether he or she expects to be a strong contender. We then test our theorizing with candidate campaign spending data from New Zealand, which has used a mixed-member system since 1996. We find support for our reasoning regarding when the strategies appropriate for pure majoritarian and pure proportional systems should be adapted when applied in their mixed counterparts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102496
JournalElectoral Studies
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • Campaign spending
  • Campaign strategy
  • Candidate vulnerability
  • Mixed member systems
  • New Zealand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Political Science and International Relations


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