The Lump Sum: A Theory of Modal Parts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


A lump theorist claims that ordinary objects are spread out across possible worlds, much like many of us think that tables are spread out across space. We are not wholly located in any one particular world, the lump theorist claims, just as we are not wholly spatially located where one’s hand is. We are modally spread out, a trans-world mereological sum of world-bound parts. We are lump sums of modal parts. And so are all other ordinary objects. In this paper, I explore lump theory and investigate five arguments against it. These arguments may be the primary reasons why lump theory (as envisioned here) has not been widely accepted––or extensively explored––until now. I maintain that these arguments can be answered, and moreover, that accepting lump theory has distinct advantages, making it a competitive view in its own right.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)403-435
Number of pages33
JournalPhilosophical Papers
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, © 2019 The Editorial Board, Philosophical Papers.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Philosophy


Dive into the research topics of 'The Lump Sum: A Theory of Modal Parts'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this