Low-rank, high-mineral matter Bulgarian coals were studied using a variety of chemical, optical, and electron beam methods. The larger fly ash carbon phases include charred carbons in contrast to coked carbons present in the fly ashes of bituminous-coal-derived fly ashes. Nanoscale carbons include multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating Hg, Se, and As, among other elements. In addition to the glass which dominates the fly ash, relatively coarse 'rock fragments', consisting of an unmelted to partially melted core surrounded by a glassy rim, are present in the fly ash. Nano-scale minerals can contain hazardous elements and, along with metal-bearing multiwalled nanotubes, can be a path for the entry of hazardous particles into the lungs and other organs.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Science of the Total Environment|
|State||Published - Feb 1 2012|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The research for this study was carried out with support from the IPADHC, funded in part by the IPADHC and the Brazilians contracted Scientifics. Andre Jasper and Carlos H. Sampaio thanks FAPERGS and CNPq. Luis F. O. Silva and Kátia DaBoit benefited from a scholarship financed by CNPq (projects: 573531/2008-0 and 550996/2010-9 ). The comments and helpful criticisms of anonymous reviewers and the support of the Editor, Dr. Pavlos Kassomenos, have considerably improved the original manuscript and are also gratefully acknowledged.
Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Fly ash
- Low-rank coal
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal