Ramp sequences occur when the average translational efficiency of codons near the 5' end of highly expressed genes is significantly lower than the rest of the gene sequence, which counterintuitively increases translational efficiency by decreasing downstream ribosomal collisions. Here, we show that the relative codon adaptiveness within different tissues changes the existence of a ramp sequence without altering the underlying genetic code. We present the first comprehensive analysis of tissue and cell type-specific ramp sequences and report 3108 genes with ramp sequences that change between tissues and cell types, which corresponds with increased gene expression within those tissues and cells. The Ramp Atlas (https://ramps.byu.edu/) allows researchers to query precomputed ramp sequences in 18 388 genes across 62 tissues and 66 cell types and calculate tissue-specific ramp sequences from user-uploaded FASTA files through an intuitive web interface. We used The Ramp Atlas to identify seven SARS-CoV-2 genes and seven human SARS-CoV-2 entry factor genes with tissue-specific ramp sequences that may help explain viral proliferation within those tissues. We anticipate that The Ramp Atlas will facilitate personalized and creative tissue-specific ramp sequence analyses for both human and viral genes that will increase our ability to utilize this often-overlooked regulatory region.
|Journal||NAR Genomics and Bioinformatics|
|State||Published - Jun 2022|